Here are the up-to-date slides for the ICTIR’13 tutorial and quantum mechanics and information retrieval.

# Category Archives: Quantum Information Retrieval

## Slides from the ECIR’12 “Quantum Information Access and Retrieval” tutorial

Follow this link to download the handout of the slides of the tutorial.

## The Kernel Quantum Probability Library

The Kernel Quantum Probability library (KQP) provides a generic API to construct “quantum” densities and events, compute and update quantum probabilities (and associated quantities).

You can find more information in

- B. Piwowarski, “The Kernel Quantum Probabilities (KQP) Library,” arXiv 2012.

[Bibtex]`@techreport{Piwowarski2012KQP, arxivid = {1203.6005}, author = {Piwowarski, Benjamin}, date-added = {2012-06-25 10:19:03 +0000}, date-modified = {2012-06-25 10:40:40 +0000}, eprint = {1203.6005}, institution = {arXiv}, link = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.6005}, month = {March}, title = {The Kernel Quantum Probabilities (KQP) Library}, year = {2012} }`

and on the KQP website.

## Internship (Master): Indices for quantum information access (INDEQ)

# Context

Quantum probabilities are a formalism based on probability, logic and geometry – three ingredients used by most models of Information Access (IA). This led van Rijsbergen to suggest their use in IA [Rij04] because, unlike “standard” probabilities based on set theory, the “quantum” ones are based on vector spaces (Hilbert spaces) and are therefore more expressive.

This flexibility has begun to be exploited in order to tackle old and new challenges in IA, such as ad-hoc information retrieval (IR) [PF 10], contextual IR [Mel08], the problem of diversifying search results [ZA10], and summarization [PA 12]. In most of these studies, information objects are represented in a multi-dimensional, ie a set of vectors (probability density) or a subspace (event).

A crucial point for the success of quantum AI is to quickly find information objects. However, there is currently no effective technique for finding objects represented in Hilbert spaces directly, without first substantially reducing the number of objects considered with standard techniques. This limits the practical importance of such models and introduces a bias in the obtained results. It is necessary to design data structures and access methods adapted to the problem of quantum AI.

## Objectives

This is a six months long internship (starting March-October 2012) and will take place in the LIP6/CNRS laboratory in Paris, France. The monthly allowance is of 420 €.

The theoretical objective of the INDEQ project is to develop index structures for fast object retrieval, when objects are represented in Hilbert spaces. To achieve this goal, tree-based indices will be developed that estimate at each node what is the probability distribution of objects in each branch (given a quantum probability distribution).

The practical objective of this project is to design a solution to recommend information objects (e.g., movies) to a user, while avoiding exploring exhaustively all the candidate objects. To this end, the project aims at defining a new access method for selecting the object or objects that have the highest probability to match the user requesting a recommendation.

# Contact Information

Please email us if you are interested by this internship.

Benjamin Piwowarski – benjamin@bpiwowar.net

Hubert Naacke – hubert.naacke@lip6.fr

## Bibliography

[Mel08] Melucci, M. (2008). A basis for information retrieval in context. ACM Transactions On Information Systems, 26(3), 1–41.

[PF+10] Piwowarski, B., Frommholz, I., Lalmas, M., & van Rijsbergen, K. (2010). What can Quantum Theory bring to IR In J. Huang, N. Koudas, G. Jones, X. Wu, K. Collins-Thompson, & A. An (Eds.), CIKM’10: Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM conference on Conference on information and knowledge management.

[PA+12] Piwowarski, B., Amini, M.-R., & Lalmas, M. (2012). On using a Quantum Physics formalism for Multi-document Summarisation. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (accepted paper to be published).

[Rij04] van Rijsbergen, K. (2004). The Geometry of Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press.

[ZA10] Zuccon, G., & Azzopardi, L. (2010). Using the Quantum Probability Ranking Principle to Rank Interdependent Documents. In C. Gurrin, Y. He, G. Kazai, U. Kruschwitz, S. Little, T. Roelleke, S. Rüger, et al. (Eds.), Advances in Information Retrieval (Vol. 5993, pp. 357–369). Springer.

## Summarisation and the Quantum Information Access framework

Our paper (with M.R. Amini and M. Lalmas) has just been accepted for publication in JASIS. It is the second time that the quantum formalism allows to re-interpret fully an existing model^{1}, but it is the first that it is useful to spot theoretical shortcomings (about LSA-based extractive summarisation) and gives hints on how to propose a new and more performant criterium for summarisation. Experiments on DUC datasets show that the QIA framework outperforms LSA (and other state-of-the-art algorithms). Please ask if you want a pre-print.

- B. Piwowarski, M. R. Amini, and M. Lalmas, “On using a quantum physics formalism for multidocument summarization,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 63, iss. 5, pp. 865-888, 2012.

[Bibtex]`@article{Piwowarski2012Summarization, author = {Piwowarski, B. and Amini, M.R. and Lalmas, M.}, date-added = {2012-06-25 10:21:46 +0000}, date-modified = {2012-06-25 10:40:38 +0000}, doi = {10.1002/asi.21713}, issn = {1532-2890}, journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology}, month = {May}, number = {5}, pages = {865-888}, title = {On using a quantum physics formalism for multidocument summarization}, volume = {63}, year = {2012} }`

It will be hopefully be followed by a paper about the quantum information framework (QIA) in all its generality (along with the code for computing “kernel quantum probabilities”).

- the first time was done by K. van Rijsbergen for the vectorial models [↩]

## Two new quantum IR publications

Two more works based on the quantum formalism have been accepted.

The first one, a poster in ECIR 2011, deals with how to cope with the representation of the information need when the user reformulates the query and propose some heuristics (no evaluation yet):

- I. Frommholz, B. Piwowarski, M. Lalmas, and K. van Rijsbergen, “Processing Queries in Session in a Quantum-inspired IR Framework,” in Proceedings of ECIR 2011, 2011.

[Bibtex]`@inproceedings{Frommholz2011Processing, author = {Frommholz, Ingo and Piwowarski, Benjamin and Lalmas, Mounia and van Rijsbergen, Keith}, booktitle = {Proceedings of {ECIR} 2011}, date-added = {2011-01-03 16:56:38 +0000}, date-modified = {2012-06-25 10:40:41 +0000}, month = {March}, note = {Poster}, title = {Processing Queries in Session in a Quantum-inspired IR Framework}, year = {2011} }`

The second one, a paper in the Italian IR 2011 workshop presents the algebra for information need that can be used to build structured query representations. The algebra is based on quantum operators that operates on so-called “information need aspects”. In the paper, we propose to use computational linguistics tools (segmentation, dependency parsing) in order to build automatically an algebraic repreesentation of the topic at hand.

- A. Caputo, B. Piwowarski, and M. Lalmas, “A Query Algebra for Quantum Information Retrieval,” in Proceedings of the 2nd Italian Information Retrieval Workshop, 2011.

[Bibtex]`@inproceedings{Caputo2011QueryAlgebra, author = {Caputo, Annalina and Piwowarski, Benjamin and Lalmas, Mounia}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd Italian Information Retrieval Workshop}, date-added = {2011-01-03 16:59:26 +0000}, date-modified = {2012-06-25 10:40:38 +0000}, month = {January}, title = {A Query Algebra for Quantum Information Retrieval}, year = {2011} }`

## Quantum IR source code

The quantum IR source code is now freely available on http://sourceforge.net/projects/qir/. There is not much documentation on how to use it for now, so please email me as needed.

## CIKM 2010 and quantum IR

Our paper about the quantum IR framework has been accepted in CIKM 2010!

**Abtract**: The probabilistic formalism of quantum physics is said to provide a sound basis for building a principled information retrieval framework. Such a framework can be based on the notion of information need spaces where events, such as document relevance or observed user interactions, correspond to subspaces. As in quantum theory, a probability distribution over these subspaces is defined through weighted sets of state vectors (density operators), and used to represent the current view of the retrieval system on the user information need. Tensor spaces can be used to capture different aspects of information needs. Our evaluation shows that the framework can lead to acceptable performance in an ad hoc retrieval task. Going beyond this, we discuss the potential of the framework for three active challenges in information retrieval, namely, interaction, novelty and diversity.

- B. Piwowarski, I. Frommholz, M. Lalmas, and K. van Rijsbergen, “What can Quantum Theory bring to IR?,” in CIKM’10: Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM conference on Conference on information and knowledge management, 2010.

[Bibtex]`@inproceedings{Piwowarski2010What-Quantum, author = {Piwowarski, Benjamin and Frommholz, Ingo and Lalmas, Mounia and van Rijsbergen, Keith}, booktitle = {CIKM'10: Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM conference on Conference on information and knowledge management}, date-added = {2010-07-19 09:20:38 +0200}, date-modified = {2012-06-25 10:40:39 +0000}, doi = {10.1145/1871437.1871450}, editor = {Huang, Jimmy and Koudas, Nick and Jones, Gareth and Wu, Xindong and Collins-Thompson, Kevyn and An, Aijun}, location = {Toronto, Canada}, publisher = {ACM}, short-booktitle = {CIKM}, short-title = {CIKM}, title = {What can Quantum Theory bring to {IR}?}, type = {International Conference}, year = {2010} }`

## Polyrepresentation and quantum IR

We recently published a new paper (in iiiX 2010) about the use of the quantum IR framework to handle polyrepresentation:

- I. Frommholz, B. Larsen, B. Piwowarski, M. Lalmas, P. Ingwersen, and K. van Rijsbergen, “Supporting Polyrepresentation in a Quantum-inspired Geometrical Retrieval Framework,” in Proceedings of the 3rd iiiX symposium, 2010.

[Bibtex]`@inproceedings{Frommholz2010Supporting-Polyrepresentation, author = {Frommholz, Ingo and Larsen, Birger and Piwowarski, Benjamin and Lalmas, Mounia and Ingwersen, Peter and van Rijsbergen, Keith}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd {iiiX} symposium}, date-added = {2010-05-30 10:46:21 +0100}, date-modified = {2012-06-25 10:40:40 +0000}, month = {aug}, title = {Supporting Polyrepresentation in a Quantum-inspired Geometrical Retrieval Framework}, type = {International Conference}, year = {2010} }`

This paper has been nominated for the best paper award!